Date- July 21, 1861
Geographic Location- Fairfax County and Prince William County
Commanders- Union under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell Confederacy under Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard
Forces Involved- Confederates and Union
Strategies and Goals-Confederate forces were driven back to Henry Hill. Late in the afternoon, Confederate reinforcements extended and broke the Union right flank. The Federal retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout. Although victorious, Confederate forces were too disorganized to pursue. The Union had 28,450 soldiers. The Confederacy had 32,230.
Outcome and Casualties- the Union lost and retreated back to Washington, exhaustion stopped the Confederates from chasing after them. There was an estimated 2, 950 Union casualties, and 1,750 Confederate casualties. Confederate victory.
Significance- The first major land battle of the armies in Virginia. The first major battle of the Civil War took place 20 miles from Washington. Union supporters thought it would be a cake-walk - it wasn't.