Department of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi 221005, India

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Department of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi 221005, India
Natural dye
TiO2 nanoparticles
Dye-sensitized solar cells
Thin film
School of Materials Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005, India
Bixa orellana
Solar Energy 194 (2019) 952–958
Contents lists available at
journal homepage:
1. Introduction
DSSC principle is based on the sensitization of a wide-band-gap
semiconducting metal oxide films to the visible light by the adsorption of
sensitizing dye molecules
(Ozawa et al., 2016; Aghazada and Nazeeruddin,
2018; Maurya et al., 2016) .
Mostly a DSSC device consists of a thin
mesoporous TiO2 film on FTO (SnO2:F) glass substrate anode, a sensitizing
dye monolayer anchored on the surface of the TiO2 layer, an electrolyte
(iodide/tri-iodide) or hole transport material, and a counter electrode.
Photoanode plays a very important role to decide the overall cell performance
and it is well known that a photoanode with high
ment is often made and the person handling is required. In contrast, green
synthesis technology is considered to be best eco-friendly
surface area and dye loading capacity, fast electron transport capability, and
an advanced light-scattering effect for better light absorption is essential
(Balasingam et al., 2013; Li et al., 2013; Ikeuchi et al., 2016; Maurya et al. .,
Thus, optimization of photoanode materials to improve its performance
in DSSC is indispensable.
In the past few years, various semiconductor metal oxides such as TiO2,
ZnO, SnO2, Nb2O5, and SrTiO3 etc. have been used as DSSC photoanode
demonstrating significant photovoltaic performances
(Sujinnapram and
Moungsrijun, 2015; Jamil et al., 2017; Mathew et al., 2014; Li et al., 2015).
Various research works has proven the n-type semiconductor, TiO2, to be
one of the promising photoanode material owing to its unique properties such
as well matched band alignment (Eg = 3.2 eV) with dyes, recycled and
excellent charge transport capability as well as high refractive index
et al., 2018; Miao et al., 2011; Francis et al., 2011).
Various synthetic
methodologies are used to obtain TiO2 nanoparticles, eg, physical, chemical
and green synthesis method
(Taheriniya and Behboodi, 2016; Sundrarajan
and Gowri, 2011).
The physical method employs expensive temperature
equipments, required high and pressure as well as enough space is ne
cessary for setting up the reaction. For a chemical route synthesis, use of
toxic chemicals which are considered as hazardous for the environ
Global energy demand is rising day by day with the growth of po pulation,
increasing industrialization and changing life style. With the high consumption
of fossil based fuels for the past few decades, we are already suffering from
life threatening challenges such as global warming and environmental
pollution. Therefore, it becomes essential to replace hazardous fossil based
fuels with emission-free, renewable, and eco-friendly energy resources.
Among the renewable energy re sources, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)
have emerged as the most promising candidate in the recent years because
of their high incident solar light-to-electricity conversion efficiency, and are
generally made from low cost materials involving very easy fabrication
(Das et al., 2018; Jen et al., 2013; Shaikh et al., 2018).
Received 12 July 2019; Received in revised form 5 October 2019; Accepted 30 October 2019
0038-092X/ © 2019 International Solar Energy Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Solar Energy
, Lal Bahadura
Shalini Singha , Sudipta Senapatib , Pankaj Srivastavaa,
Ishwar Chandra Mauryaa ,
ÿ Corresponding author.
Mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanoparticles are the best photoanode materials for high performance DSSC. Chemical
and physical methods used for the preparation of TiO2 nanoparticles suffer with environment related issues eg
use of toxic solvents, hazardous by-products and consumptions of high energy. We have synthesized mesoporous
anatase TiO2 nanoparticles from Titanium (IV) butoxide solution using Bixa orellana seed extract and further used
it for making DSSC photoanode. The method offers environment friendly, cheaper and efficient DSSC.
Structure, morphology, size and porosity of TiO2 nanoparticles were used using XRD, SEM, TEM and N2 sorption
measurements. The amount of dye loading by TiO2 was obtained using desorption technique which revealed
much higher dye loading for the plant seed grown nanoparticles (G-TNP). TNP and G-TNP demon strated
photovoltaic conversion conversions 1.03% and 2.97% respectively. This study therefore demonstrates that the
synthesized mesoporous anatase TiO2 nanoparticles can serve as promising photoanode materials for DSSC
E-mail address:
(P. Srivastava).
Green synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles using Bixa orellana seed extract and
its application for solar cells
Machine Translated by Google

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